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Prevention of Falls - Interventions in the Home Visits to the Elderly: Scoping Review

Author(s): Teresa Oliveira, Cristina Lavareda Baixinho, Maria Adriana Henriques

Background: The prevalence of falls in the elderly population is high, causing mortality, morbidity, and loss of functionality, contributing to an increase in the elderly’s dependence, loss of quality of life and decrease in the average life expectancy. This study aims to identify the interventions performed during the home visit that may have an impact on the reduction of risk, on the prevention of falls, on their recurrence and / or on secondary injuries.

Methods and Findings: Scoping review, with the inclusion of primary studies to answer the research question: Which nursing interventions during the home visit prevent the (C) fall in the home (Co) of the Elderly Person? Research conducted in the databases available on the search engines of EBSCO, B-On, ISI; SCOPUS and JBI, inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined. The search time limit has been restricted to the last 5 years. The 10 studies that integrate the sample are heterogeneous, evaluated a total of 32,308 elderly. The use of cognitive-behavioral strategies has a positive effect on reducing mortality, institutionalization, falls and functional decline. The results of our investigation are not conclusive as to the effect of physical exercise performed at home in the prevention of falls. The elderly positively evaluate the performance of home visits to prevent falls.

Conclusions: Evidence on the effectiveness of home visits for falls prevention is low. Future studies should explore the effectiveness of different programs to promote physical activity and social participation in reducing the risk and prevalence of falls.

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