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Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk Assessment among Type 2 Diabetes and its Relation to Neck Circumference

Abstract

Background

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) is a chronic illness that is wide spreading worldwide. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is clinically defined as a group of disorders diagnosed by recurrent apneas. Our primary goal is to assess the prevalence of high risk OSA in a random sample of T2D patients.

Method

This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between November 2015 and July 2016. We interviewed adult T2D patients who had routine follow-up visits. Patients with type I and gestational diabetes mellitus, untreated hypothyroidism, and those with goiter were excluded. We used STOP-Bang Questionnaire to assess OSA risk.

Result

A total of 216 patients were participated in the study with a mean age of 60.9+11.1 years, predominantly male and with long standing T2D. 54.2% of the patients have a low/intermediate risk for OSA. Compared to those who were considered to have low/intermediate risk, those who have high risk were older (p=0.171), and mostly male (p<0.001), have longer duration of T2D (p=0.002), higher BMI (<0.001), higher waist circumference (<0.001 ), neck circumference (<0.001), higher SBP (p=0.324), higher HbA1c (p=0.706), physically inactive (p=0.312), and were more likely to have cardiac disease (p=0.002 ) and retinopathy (p=0.009).

There was a significant positive correlation between the neck circumference and OSA risk score (r=0.229, p=0.001).

Conclusion

45.8% of our patients have a high risk for OSA. Those were more likely to be older male, have longer T2D duration, higher measures of adiposity, worse cardiovascular markers, poor lifestyle habits, and were more likely to have complications.