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Effects of Fasting in Ramadan on Pregnancy Outcome: Systematic Review

Author(s): Ali Ibrahim Noshili, Mehreen jamshed, Amal Mohammad Hamdi, Ali jobran Noshaily, Ayat Mohamed Ahmed Zammar, Maryam Yahya Abdu Jabbari, Sadiyyah Yahya Khudhayr, Nadyah farhan Alshakarah, Salihah Munawir Almutairi, Ahlam Jaber Sale

Methods: Complying with Prisma guidelines, a cross-sectional study was conducted based on an Electronic database searched across PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Scopus, without date restrictions. Our inclusion criteria were pregnant women in any one trimester during the 30 days of Ramadan. Four groups were made for the sample: non-fasting, fasting in first 10 days, fasting in 2nd trimester, and fasting in the last 10 days. Meta-analysis was conducted in random-effects using Covariance analysis and the SPSS programme for screening of relevant data.

Results: A total of 43 articles were included after screening and the data for various pregnancy outcomes were measured. Fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) was found to be increased by 0.2mm in all trimesters. The data proved no significant difference in BMI with mother's age, start of pregnancy, multi gravida or history of abortion. For the effects on neonatal health, no significant correlation was found between the number of days they had fasted and neonate’s height, weight, or head circumference. No statistically significant relationship between fasting during different trimesters and pregnancy outcome indicators.

Conclusion: Fasting had no adverse effects on pregnant women or fetal growth. Further study, if possible, a randomized controlled study, is needed to determine whether maternal fasting did not affect maternal-fetal health.